Power Section component
N/P channel Mosfet:-
N channel –
For an N channel MOSFET, the source is connected to ground. If we want to let current flow, we can easily raise the voltage on the gate allowing current to flow. If no current is to flow, the gate pin should be grounded.
Looking at the P channel MOSFET the source is connected to the power rail V2. In order to allow current to flow the gate needs to be pulled to ground. To stop the current flow the gate needs to be pulled to V2. A potential problem if V2 is a very high voltage it can be difficult raising the gate to the V2 voltage. Not only that, but the MOSFET has a limitation on the Gate-Source potential differences. Also, note that logic is inverted for a P-type MOSFET.
DC Power Jack:-
There are two ways to power you can use the USB connector to connect to a computer or portable power pack or you can plug into a wall adapter. USB can be used to power and program. DC can only be used for power but it’s great for when you want to connect your Arduino and leave it plugged in for a long term project. This is the DC Power Jack. The technical specifications for the Jack is 2.mm inner diameter, 5.5 mm outer diameter with Positive Tip. That’s just mechanical size of the plug in case you’re looking to match it up. It’s an extremely common power plug size, so it isn’t too hard to find a matching power plug. Sometimes they’re just referred to as 2.1mm DC Plug.
Battery Charge/Discharge Control:
Battery charge and discharge control for energy management in EV and utility integration. For the EDV side converters constant current and constant voltage control mechanism are developed for charging and discharging control. A charge controller with MPPT capabilities frees the system designer from closely matching available PV voltage to battery voltage. Considerable efficiency gains can be achieved particularly when the array is located at some distance from the battery. By the way of example a 150-volt array connected to an MPPT charge controller can be used to charge a 24 or 48-volt battery. Higher array voltages mean lower array current so the savings in wiring costs can more than pay for the controller. The charge controller may also monitor battery temperature to prevent overheating. Some charge controller system also displays data transmits data to remote display and data logging to track electric flow over time.
Power Diode Power Diode is the two terminal two-layer devices which is used in most of the power electronic circuit. The power semiconductor diode is similar to low power PN junction diode. In fast, power diode is more complex in structure and in operation than their low power counterpart. This complexity happens because low power device must be modified to make them suitable for high power applications.
When the anode terminal is positive with respect to cathode it is known as forward biased. When the anode terminal is negative with respect to the cathode, it is known as reverse biased.
The power diode plays the vital role in the power electronic circuit. The majors and most important applications of power diode in converters circuit are working as a rectifier freewheeling diode or flyback diode reverse voltages protection voltage regulations circuit etc.
The symbol of the Power Diode is same as a signal level diode.
power resistor is a resistor designed and manufacture to dissipate a large amount of power in a compact physical package.
Power Resistor is designed to withstand and dissipate large amounts of power. In general, they have a power rating of at least 5 Watt. They are made from materials with a high thermal conductivity allowing efficient cooling. They are often designed to be coupled with heat sinks to be able to dissipate the high amount of power. Some might even be forced air or liquid cooling but the common thing for all power resistor is that they are built to dissipate the most power while keeping their size as small as possible.
A polarized capacitor is a type of capacitor that has implicit polarity it can only be connected one way in a circuit. The positive leads are shown on the schematic with a little plus symbol
The electrolytic and tantalum capacitor are polarized and are always labeled as such. Some polarized capacitor have their polarity designated by marking the positive terminal. The negative Some polarized capacitor have their schematic but may be marked on the capacitor with a bar or symbol Polarized capacitor are generally electrolytic.
Note that you really need to pay attention to correctly hooking a polarized Capacitor up to polarity as well as not pushing a capacitor past its rated voltage. If you push a polarized capacitor hard enough it is possible to begin electroplating the most electrolyte. A modern electrolytic capacitor usually have a pressure relief vent to prevent catastrophic failure of the aluminum can
Fuse or Fusible Resistor:-
A fuse resistor is an ordinary resistor that is used as a fuse when it’s electrical characteristics are violated resulting in its destruction thus breaking the circuit. In order to protect a portion of a circuit against overcurrent of say 100mA, I will simply insert a suitable resistor in the current path according to the formula below: (R= P/^2=P *U^2) Where P is power in Watts, I is current in Amperes and U is voltage in volts. (R=P/I^2 = 0.25W/(100mA)^2=25Ohm / 1/4W)
Operational Amplifier IC:-
An operational amplifier is an integrated circuit that operates as a voltage amplifier. An op-amp has a different input. That is,it has a single output and a very high gain which means that input signal. An op-amp is often represented in a circuit diagram with the following symbol: These amplifiers are called “operation” amplifier because they were initially designed as an effective device for performing arithmetic operations in an analog circuit. The op-amp has many other applications in signal processing measurements and instrumentation. Operational amplifiers only respond to the difference between the voltages on its two input terminal is known commonly as the ” Differential Input Voltage ” and not to their common potential. Then if the same voltage potential is applied to both terminals the resultant output will be zero. An Operational Amplifier gain is commonly known as the Open Loop Differential Gain and is given the symbol (An operational amplifiers bandwidth) The operational amplifiers bandwidth is the frequency range over which the voltage gain of the amplifier is above 70.7% or -3dB of its maximum output value as shown below.
Power Inductor is important in applications where voltage conversion is necessary because they yield lower core losses. Power Inductor is an electronic component which receives as well as stores electrical energy by using a magnetic field. This magnetic field. This magnetic field is usually created in an electrical circuit with varying current and or voltage.
Types of power Introductory:-
There are many different kinds of power inductors. At future Electronic we stock many of the most common type categorized by DC Resistance, Nominal inductance, tolerance maximum Rated current case size/ Dimension packaging type, and shielding. The parametric filters on our website can help refine your search result depending on the required specifications.
Power Inductor from future Electronic:-
Future Electronics has a full power inductors selection from several manufactures that can be used to design a power supply inductors high power inductors SMD power inductors high current inductors or for any circuit that may require a power inductors. Simply choose from the power inductor technical attributed below and your search result will quickly be narrowed in order to match your specific power inductor applications needs
Applications for power Inductor :
Power Inductor have three main application
. Conducted EMI noise filter in AC inputs
. Low pass frequency noise filter for low frequency noise filter for low frequency ripple current noise
. Energy storage in DC to DC converters
SMD ( surface mount ) power inductors are used in order to store energy while filtering EMI current with a low loss inductance In an application where voltage conversion is performed.
How to work System Main Power or Step down Regulator Section:-
DC -to-do switching converters are used to change one DC voltage to another efficiently. High-efficiency DC- to- DC converters come in three basic topologies. The buck converters is used to generate a lower DC output voltage the boost converters is used to generate a higher DC output voltage and the buck-boost converters is used to generate an output voltage less than greater than or equal to the input voltage. This article focuses on how to successfully apply buck converters. Buck and boost converters have been covered individually in the June 2011 and September 2011issues of Analog Dialogue and will not be reviewed in this article.
A typical low power system powered from a Single-cell lithium-ion battery. The battery usable output varies from about 3.0V for optimum operation.
When VIN is less than VOUT Switch B is open and Switch A is closed. Switch C and D operate as in a boost regulator as shown in the most difficult operating mode is when VIN is in the range of VOUT 10% and the regulator enters the buck-boost mode. The two operations take place during a switching cycle. Care must be taken to reduce loses optimize efficiency and eliminate instability due to mode switching. The objective is to maintain voltage regulation with minimal current ripple in the inductor to guarantee good transient performance.
A large number of the portable system in use today are powered by a single cell rechargeable Li-ion battery as mentioned above the battery will start from a fully charged 4.2v and slowly discharge down to 3.0v when the battery output drop 3.0v the system is turned off to protect the battery from damage due pretend to discharge when. A low dropout regulator is used to generate a 33v Raul the system will shut down at.
To save energy in Portable system varies subsystem such as the microprocessor display backlight and power amplifiers when not in use are frequently switched between full on and sleep mode which can induce large voltage transient on the battery supply line. This transient can cause the battery output voltage to brief drop causing the system to turn off before the battery is completely discharged the buck-boost solution will tolerate voltage swing as low 2.3 v helping to maintain the system potential operating time.
Step down Regulator Functional Block diagram
Functional Block Diagram of the battery control section.
Adapter power mode:- a power supply unit converts mains AC to low voltage regulated DC power for the internal components. Of a computer universally use switched mode power supplies. ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard
Battery Power Mode: it most likely is not the monitor which is in power save mode it is the computer itself. When you cannot get a computer out power save mode by any other means typically the course us that the button cell type battery of your computer which is located on the motherboard
Power Rails Description:-
A power supply. Rail is a supply voltage that provides power for electrical or electronic devices or components on a circuit board. Power supply rails used for early desktop computers included as direct current and a common or return line. Later computer began using for the rails. The power supply rails used for most analog circuit still requires a split power rail . Operational amplifiers may use power supply rail and they operate with input and output signals that are typically dual polarity in nature similar to the sine waves or sinusoidal waves which have alternating polarity like alternating current (AC).
The voltage rail in a power supply unit has a corresponding current limit. Power supplies with an absolute maximum rating of maybe be operational at 90% full current which is 9A if the load requires 18A two power supplies will need to be used. The manufacture may provide special instructions when connecting two power supplies to drive the same power supply rail. There are also cases where the load has been split to provide the proper loading to each power supply.
System Main power IC Max 1630, 1631,1632,1633,1634,1635 datasheet
The are buck technology step down, switch mode, power supply controllers that generate logic supply voltage in battery powered system. These high-performance dual triple output devices include onboard power-up sequencing power good signaling with delay digital soft-start secondary winding control low dropout circuit internal frequency Compensation network and automatic bootstrapping.
Up to 96% efficiency is achieved through synchronous rectification and Maxim’s proprietary Idle Mode control scheme. Efficiency is greater than 80% over 1000: 1 load current range which extends battery life in system suspend or standby mode. Excellent dynamic response correct output loads transients caused by the latest dynamic clock CPUs within five 300kHz clock cycles. Strong 1A onboard gate drives ensure fast external N- channel MOSFET switching. These devices featured a logic controlled. And synchronization fixed frequency pulse width modulation. Operating mode. This reduces noise and RF interference in sensitive mobile communication and pen entry applications asserting the Skip pin enables fixed frequency mode for lowest noise under all load condition
System Main Power IC tps51120-Datasheet
The TPS51120 Is a highly sophisticated dual, synchronous step-down the controller. It is a full-featured controller designed to run directly off there or four cell Li-ion battery and provide high power and 5v standby regulations for all downstream circuitry in a notebook computer system high current onboard linear regulations have a glitch-free switchover function to SMPS and can be kept alive independently during the standby state. The pseudo-constant frequency adaptive on-time control scheme support full range of current mode operation including simplified loop compensation ceramic output capacitor as well as seamless transition to reduce frequency operation at light load condition optional D-CAP mode operation optimized for SP-CAP or POSCAP output capacitor allows further reduction of external compensation parts dynamic uvp support line sag without latch off by hitting. No negative voltage appears at output voltages mode during the loss of VIN.
Battery Control ICMAX8731a:-
The MAX8731 is a programmable multi-chemistry battery charger. The uses a minimal command set to easily program the charge voltages to charge current and adapter current limit. The MAX8731 charges one to four series cells and delivers up to 8A charge current. The charger employs dual remote sense which reduces charge time by measuring the feedback voltage directly at the battery improving the accuracy of initial transition into constant voltage mode. They provide a digital output that indicates the presence of the AC adapters as well as an analog output that indicates the adapter current within 4,% accuracy. The MAX8731 is available in a small 0.8mm package. An evaluation kit is available to reduce design time.
Standard SJ-MOSFET:An Series
The AN series product was the first developed with the aims of greatly the drain-source on resistance and the total. gate charge compared with planar. The RDS was reduced by 50% compared with planar in terms of characteristics the AN series are positioned as standard devices.
DC Removing & Re-fixing Method
1. Turn off the laptop:-
you never want to begin repairing a laptop or any electrical system where the power is still on. It could shock you and damage the internal components
2. Pull out the battery:-
it is located at the bottom of the laptop. It will have two spring loaded tabs that you pull out while taking the battery out.
3. Holds down the power button 40second
. This will discharge static electricity that can damage your laptop sensitive components.
4. Unscrew the hard drive and RAM doors.
. Some screw will not come off they are simply Unscrew but remain attached to the hole that it is in when you take the door off.
5. Pull out the hard drive. Take a picture.
7. Pull out the keyboard screw cover. Use the computer chip lifter.
8. Unscrew the screw from under the laptop and unscrew the small screws from the battery opening.
9. Pull out the DVD drive.
10. Pull off top plate slowly.
11. Unscrew the screw attaching The motherboard to the chassis.
12. Pull off any cords connecting to the motherboards and flip it over.
13. Insert the new DC Jack to the motherboard and chassis.
Re-Assembly of DC
1. Place motherboard in place in the chassis that it was taken from before flipping it over.
2. Reconnect all cords to the motherboard.
3.Screw in the fan and plug in its cord.
The fan will go in the same way it came out.
4. Re-attach the face plate.
5.Plug in the keyboard.
6.Screw in the screw to the back of the laptop.
7. Insert RAM drive.
8. Insert RAM cards.
9. Insert the hard drive..
10. Cover the RAM cards and drive with their respective doors and screw those in.