What is Processor:- A processor or “microprocessor” is a small chip that resides in computer and other electronic devices its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output. While this may seem like a simple task modern processors can handle trillions of calculation per second. The CPU is the heart of the computer and is responsible for running the operating system and every application you use. A speedier CPU means faster-running programs but usually, it also means lower battery life and a more expensive laptop. Nearly every laptop has a CPU from AMD or Intel.
The basic elements of a processor:
. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) which carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in instructions.
. The floating point unit (FPU) also known as a math coprocessor or numeric coprocessor, a specialized coprocessor that manipulated number more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuitry can.
. Register which holds instructions and other data. Register supply operands to the ALU and store the result of the operation.
. L1 and L2 cache memory. Their inclusion in the CPU saves time compared to having to get data from random access memory (RAM).
The architecture of a processor chip is a description of its basic components and of its basic operation.
Each processor family has its own architecture. Assembly language is a programming view of the architecture of a particular processor. Each type of processor has its own assembly language.
Electronic view of computer architecture, but is below the operating system view of the computer system. Computer scientists understand computer at many levels. They understand how the many levels are built one on top of another. Each of these corresponds to one or more courses in computer science degree programs.
. A front side bus:-
it is a communication interface that serves as the main link between the CPU and system memory and other parts of the chipset and motherboard. It was actively used in computer architecture in the 1990s early 2000s and the speed of its communication link could be a bottleneck in the computer system it was considered an important measure of computer performance.
The FSB connects the following components with the CPU.
. System Chipset
. System memory
.Graphics card through the northbridge
. Other input/ output devices
. PCI cards
The speed of the front side bus is measured in Megahertz or Gigahertz just like the processor. Most computer processors runs faster than their system buses, so the FSB speed is typically a ratio of the processor speed.
The smaller the ratio, the more efficiently the processor can work. Therefore faster front-side bus speeds lead to faster overall performance. When the CPU to FSB ratio is high, the processor often has to wait for data to be sent out over the system bus before getting news data to process. For this reason, the FSB can be a bottleneck in computer performance. So if you are looking for a fast computer don’t just check the processor speed but find out what the front side bus speed is as well.
Around 80% of new PCs and over 90% of laptop have Intel processors. This means that if you’re in the market for a new computer you’ll most likely be considering an Intel-powered model.
Finding the right chip is hard. Intel’s processor ecosystem is strewn with a confusing model number that actually tells you a lot about the processor you’re about to buy albeit only if you know what you’re actually looking for.
Intel’s branding doesn’t make it particularly easy for you to choose it’s not at all obvious what the difference between a Core i3, Core i5 or Core i7 processor is apart from an ever-increasing amount of cash removed from your wallet.
Processor manufacturing Company:
Intel: For many years the Intel Celeron processor was the poor stepsister offering too little performance at too high a price. Cynical observer believed that the only reason Intel sold any Celeron processor at all was that system makers wanted the Intel name on their boxes without having to pay the higher price for an Intel mainstream processor.
The core is a line of mid to high-end consumer, workstation, and enthusiast central processing unit (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. This processor displaced the existing mid to high-end Pentium processor of the time moving the Pentium to the entry-level and bumping the Celeron series of the processor to low end. The identical or more capable version of Core processor is also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation market.
The lineup of Core processor included the Intel Core i9, Intel Core i7, Intel Core i3 along with the Y- Series Intel Core CPUs.
Advanced Micro Device, Inc is an American Multinational Semiconductor company. AMD is the second largest of personal computer microprocessor after Intel. They also make flash memory, an integrated circuit for networking devices and programmable logic device. AMD report that is has sold over 100 million* 86 microprocessor.
Its Athlon microprocessor delivered in mid-1999 was the first to support a 200 MHz bus. In March 2000 announced the first 1 gigahertz PC microprocessor in a new version of the Athlon.
VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuit mainly motherboard chipset CPU and memory. It is the world largest independent manufacturer of motherboard chipset.
IA’s business focuses on the intergated chipset for the PC market. Among PC users VIA is best known for its motherboard chipset. However, products include audio controllers network connectivity low power CPU and writer chipset. PC and peripheral vendors such as ASUS then buy the chipset for inclusion into their own product brands.
In late 1990, VIA began diversifying its core logic business and the company has since made a business acquisition to form a CPU division graphics division and a sound division. As the advance in silicon manufacturing continues to increase the level of integration and functionality in chipset, VIA will need this division to remain competitive in the core-logic market.
The mainstream processor typically cost dollar 125 to dollar 250 although the fastest models sell for dollars 500 or more and offer anything up to about twice the overall performance of the slowest budget processor. A mainstream processor may be a good upgrade choice if you need more performance than a budget processor offers and are willing to pay the additional cost.
However, depending on your motherboard processor may not be an operation even if you are willing to pay the extra cost. Mainstream processor consume considerably more power than most budget processor often too much to be used on older features that may not be compatible with an older recent cores larger L2 caches and other features that may or may not provide enough power for a current mainstream processor and the new processor may require faster memory than is currently installed. If you intend to upgrade to a mainstream processor carefully verify compatibility of the processor carefully verify compatibility of the processor, motherboard power supply and memory before buying the processor.
Dual Core Processor:- By early 2005AMD and Intel had both pushed their processor cores to about the fastest possible speed and it had become clear that the only practical way to increase processor perform significantly was to use two processors. Although it’s possible to build system with two physical processors doing that introduces many complexities not least a doubling of the already high power consumption and heat production. AMD later followed by Intel chose to go dual core.
Intel Pentium D:-
The announcement of AMD’s Athlon dual-core processors caught Intel unprepared. Under the gun, Intel took a cruder approach to make dual-core processors. Rather than build an integrated dual-core processor as AMD had with its Athlon 64* 2 processor Intel essentially slapped two slower Pentium 4 cores on one substrate and called it the Pentium D dual-core processor.
AMD Family Processor and block Diagram of AMD processor:-
AMD Ryzen Processor from brainstorm to breakthroughs and visionaries to victories the incredibly powerful AMD Ryzen Processor empowers you to imagine the design and create without boundaries. Discover true responsiveness with up to 16cores and 32 threads for exceptional performance and megatasking capability along with newly designed advanced architecture and intelligent AMD Sense MI technology plus learn about Ryzen desktop model with built-in Radeon Vega graphics and our new advanced 2nd generation Ryzen desktop processor with improved technology and even more performance.1
AMD advanced desktop platform with DDR4 memory support
Unlocked 7th Gen AMD A-Series processor and AMD X4 processors
Get playing with the unlocked 7th Gen AMD A series processor and Athlon x4 processor1 integrated Radeon graphic enables the game performance you want today. And when combined with a discrete graphics card the quad-core Athlon x4 processors you need now on the future ready AM4 platform that’s ready to upgrade to a Ryzen Processor when you’re ready to go big.
AMD A-series APU
Amazing performance at a great price. Advanced responsive and efficient processing with Radeon graphics built in for online gaming and media playback. With built-in Radeon graphics, no discrete graphics no discrete graphics card require
Laptop Processor Socket
In the beginning, a CPU socket was compatible with just one kind of processor. This scenario changed with the launching of the 486processor and the massive use of ZIP socket also known as LIF. The ZIF socket has a lever that installs and removes the CPU from the socket without the need of the user or the technician to press the CPU down in order for it to be installed on the socket. The use of this socket greatly lowered the chance s of breaking or bending the CPU pins during its installation or removal. The use of the same pinot by more than one processor allowed the user or the technician to install different processor models on the same motherboard by merely removing the old CPU and installing the new one. Of course, the motherboard needed to be compatible with the new CPU being installed and also properly configured.
Thus socket2 accepts the same CPU accepted by socket 1in addition to some more models and so forth. Even though the socket 6 was designed it was never used we usually call the pinout used by 486 class processor as socket 3. Originally Intel defined overdrive as the possibility of a socket to accept more than one CPU model. Intel also adopted this name on newer CPUs that used a printout from an older CPU in order to allow the new CPU to be installed on an older motherboard.
The first Pentium processor used a printout standard called socket 4 which was fed with 5v Pentium processor from 75MHz on were fed with 3.3V requiring a new socket called socket 5 which was incompatible with socket4. Socket7 uses the same pinout as socket 5 with the addition of one key pin accepting the same processor accepted by socket 5 plus new CPUs especially CPU 5 always fed the CPU with 3.3v socket 7 allowed the CPU to be fed with a different voltage level such as 3.5v or 2.8v super socket is a socket 7capable of running up to 100MHz used by AMD CPUs . We usually call the Pentium classic and compatible CPUs pinout as socket7.
Screw Type Socket:-
Intel Celeron M:- The Intel Celeron M processor and the ultra-low voltage Intel Celeron M processors are high-performance low power mobile processor with several microarchitectural enhancement over existing mobile Intel Celeron processor.
The ultra-low voltage Intel Celeron M processor is available at the following frequency. In the microtechnology
Core 2 Duo Mobile:-
when your power your laptop with an Intel Core 2 Duo Mobile processor you’ll get the performance you need for today’s mobile multitasking
Built on the breakthrough 45mm hafnium-based technology the Intel Core 2 Duo Mobile processor gives You plenty of power to run much demanding application simultaneously whether at home in the office or on the go.
With Intel Core 2Duo mobile processor you get these Intel technology built in:
The Pentium Dual-core Core brands were used for mainstream *86 architecture microprocessor for Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium. The processor is based on either the 32bit Yonah or 64-bit targeted at mobile or desktop computers.
In terms of features price and performance at a given clock frequency Pentium Dual Core processor was positioned above Celeron but below Core and Core 2 microprocessor in Intel product range. The Pentium Dual Core was also a very popular choice for overlooking as it can deliver high performance at a low price.
Intel Core Solo microprocessor family is a family of single core mobile processor based on improved mobile microarchitecture. The Core Solo microprocessors have all of the basic features found in the Pentium M Dothan microprocessor: 32 instruction and data level 1caches 2MB level, 2cache, support for SSE and SSE2 instructions execute disable bit and package power saving modes. The Core Solo CPU also includes Virtualization technology and support for SSE3 instruction.
There were two types of Core Solo microprocessor based on their power consumption standard power identified by T prefix in the model number and ultra-low power consumption identified by U prefix in the model number. Ultra low power Core microprocessor had significantly lower Thermal Design Power than standard power Corp Solos. Lower power dissipation for U1XX line was achieved largely by running the bat a slower frequency and lower core voltage. Also, the full line of U1XX CPUs was produced in micro BGA package that was soldered directly on a motherboard and therefore had a lower profile than a socketed microprocessor. Low power and low profile advantage of series of CPU made them ideal for a thin and ultra-thin notebook. The main disadvantage of these processors was the fact that the microprocessor was soldered hence were almost impossible to replace or upgrade.
Socket G1 & G2 Supported Intel processor:-
Socket G1, or rPGA988A, is a socket for the first generation of Nehalem based mobile microprocessor. The socket was introduced in September 2009 along with the first three Core i7-branded mobile CPU and eventually, it was used for Core 5. The socket support DDR3 memory with data rates up to 1333 Mhz and Direct Media interface. Socket G1was supper ceded by socket G2.
The socket has 988 pin holes arranged as 35*36 grid, and with 18*15 section removed from the center of the grid. 2Pin holes at one corner of the Socket are plugged. Similar to previous mobile socket the doesn’t have a lever that locks the CPU in place. Instead, the socket has a special actuator that needs to be turned to lock or release the CPU.
Although the socket has the same number of pinholes as socket G2 they are not compatible with each other due to different position of one of the pin holes.
also called rPGA988B, was introduced in January 2011 as a socket for mobile microprocessor based on Sandy Bridge microarchitecture. Alongside the new CPUs Intel launch. When the initial launch of socket G2 platform included only Core branded process Intel eventually released mobile Celeron and Pentium “Sandy Bridge” models compatible with the socket.
The rPGA988B was also used for the next generation of mobile microprocessor codenamed these CPUs were released in April 2012 and were paired with new 7 series chipset that features partial compatibility with older products. The 7series chipset that featured partial. However due to changes in electrical interface of IVY Bridge chips they could not be used in older motherboard built on 6 series chipset.
Socket S1 Supported and Processor:-
A type of Processor Socket used for AMD tuition 64Athlon 64 Mobile and Sempron Processor and also support virtualization. Socket S1 may also be called AMD Socket 638 pin low profile ZIF 1.27mm pitch socket. It replaces the existing Socket 754 in the mobile computing segment.
Latest Laptop Processors Clock Speed List:-
Processor clock speed or clock rate is measured in Hertz generally in gigahertz or GHz.A CPUs clock speeds rate is a measure of how many clock cycles a CPU can perform per second.
In other words you can say the faster the clock, the more instruction the CPU can execute per second. Clock speeds are expressed in Megahertz or Gigahertz.
World’s fastest processor is an overlooked AMD announced that their new 8core Bulldozer FX processor clocked a record speed of 8.429GHz with the help of liquid nitrogen and helium.
What is Dual Core:-
Dual-core refers to a CPU that includes two completed execution cores per physical processor. It has combined two processor and their caches and cache controller onto a single integrated circuit. Dual core processors are well suited for multitasking environment because there are two complete execution core instead of one each with an independent interface to the front side bus.
Since each core has its own cache, the operating system has sufficient resources to handle most compute-intensive tasks in parallel.
What is Quad Core:-
A quad-core processor is a multiprocessor architecture that is designed to provide faster processing power. It is a successor to the Dual core which has two processor cores. Quad-core processors integrate two dual-core processors which has two processors cache. A quad-core processor can execute multiple instructions simultaneously meaning that each core can be dedicated for separate instructions.
Although quad-core processors increasing The processing performance of a computer by a significant margin system speed also depend on other computing components to deliver overall computing performance.
What is Multi-Core:-
A multi-core processor is an integrated circuit to which two or more processor have attached for enhanced performance reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks. A dual-core set up is somewhat comparable to having multiple separate installed in the same computer but because the two processors is actually plugged into the socket the connection between them is faster.
How to remove the CPU?
. Some computer components such as video cards and RAM are directly accessible once you open the machine case allowing you to remove and replace them with very little effort. The central processing unit, however, sits underneath a heat sink and fan making it more difficult to access. The CPU and CPU socket are particularly fragile so handle them carefully and only remove the processor when absolutely necessary.
. Turn off then the computer and then turn off the power supply units switch on the back of the case if your computer has one. Unplug the computer from. The Power outlet.
. Wear an antisemitic wristband or work on an antisemitic may if you have one. If not take basic static precautions such as frequently touching a metal surface on the case as you work. Ideally, you should disconnect all cords from the computer and place it on a table where you can work standing up
. Open the computer case every case open differently but many have two thumbscrews that hold the left side panel has a fan built in unplugging it from the motherboard In order to set the panel side.
. Locate The CPU fan and unplug its power cable from the motherboard. Usually, this will be the only fan located directly on the motherboard.
. Turn the head of each of the legs surrounding The fan and heat sink to unlock it from the motherboard
. Gently wiggle the heat sink and fan while pulling upward on the entire device to remove it from the CPU.
. Remove the latch holding the processor and lift the retaining piece out of the way.
. Lift the processor straight out of the socket holding it by its edges. Do not try to slide the processor out or grip it from one end.
. Place the CPU in a safe location if you plan to use it again. Ideally, return it to its original packaging or put it in an antistatic bag. If you are not installing a new CPU right replace the plastic socket cover on the motherboard to keep dust out of the socket.
How to Reduce CPU Temperature
Many laptops overheat because the fan on the bottom is blocked and the hard drive then quickly fails. By using one of these methods, you can keep your laptop cooler and run efficiently.
Elevate the laptop put a small book or item under your computer’s battery when sitting at your desk. This slight tilt allows a lot more air to flow under the laptop keeping it significantly cooler. Ensure that the book is not blocking the bottom fan hole.
Keeping it Cool
1 Buy a laptop cooling mat. There are many brands to choose from and are available at computer stores like Best buy or online from Newegg. You can even buy riser or computer stands that have ventilation.
. If you can’t afford to find a cooling mat always prefer something hard under the laptop rather than something soft.
. Don’t use your laptop on soft surfaces such as a sofa, carpeting, folded quilt or pillow. Any vents located on the bottom of your laptop will be blocked and airflow will be reduced causing it to overheat. It may even overheat enough to catch on fire.
. Maintain a cool environment. Try keeping your laptop in an air-conditioned or cool area to allow your system to cool down and prevent it from overheating.
. Consider using a heat sink. Use a steel flat bar as an external heat sink. It works because your computer has to heat up more mass before it overheats. This also means, that the larger the bar the longer it will take for it overheats. It will only work if your laptop has a metal case, and it feels hot.
1. Get a program to keep track of your temperature
2. Stop overclocking If you overclock your computer it will be hotter than usual. If you didn’t do it you don’t need to underclock since that will make your computer lag.
3. Lower the Maximum Processor states. Note this is for Window only. You might be able to do this on Mac but Windows is easier. Click the battery choose more power option. Change plan settings for the one you use, then click Advanced power settings. Click processor power management, then for the one you use, then click advanced power settings. Click processor power management then maximum processor states. Set both to around 70-90%.
4. Lower the brightness.
Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and its Checking Method;-
failing to clean your CPU fan can cause the fan to either slow down or to fail completely. If the fan fails then the temperature inside the CPU case will significantly increase which creates the potential for overheating. The easiest way to clean a CPU fan is to use a can of Compressed air.
1. Shut down your PC and turn the power off. Remove the power cords from the rear of the tower and disconnect them from their power source.
2. Place the tower on top of an anti-static mat that has been laid on top of a table. You may also wear an antistatic wristband that is connected to an electrical ground, like a metal plumbing fixture. You’ll need to use the antistatic devices because static discharge from the floor or from your body could damage data stored on the computer.
3. Opens the back of the computer case according to the directions in your owner’s manual. Some CPU’s will require screwdrivers for removal while others will have buttons to depress before the back comes off.
4. The position you can of compressed air at least two inches from the surface that you are cleaning.
5. Clean the fan intakes and the exhaust using short puffs of canned air. The intake is the grid-like structures that filter the air that comes into the fan
6. Spray short puffs of canned air over the fan blades. To listen clumps of dirt hold your canned air at multiple angles rather than using long bursts of air. Make sure that you do not touch anything inside of the CPU tower.
7. Set the canned air aside and close the back o your CPU.
8. Clean the exterior of your CPU with a damp cloth that has been dipped in soapy lukewarm water. dry the surface with a soft towel.
9. Use a damp cloth to clean your power cords while they are a disconnect from a power source. Dry the power cords with a soft towel.
10. Return the power cords to their correct position and power up your computer.
Various Types of Laptop Processor Heat Sink
a heat sink is an electronic device that incorporates either a fan or a Peltier device to keep a hot component such as a processor cool. There are two heat sink types active and passive.
Active heat sinks utilize the power supply and are usually a fan type or some other Peltier cooling device. If you are looking to purchase an active heat sink. We recommend purchasing fans with ball bearing motors that often last much longer than sleeve bearing. Sometimes these types of sinks are referred to as an HSF which is short for heat sink and fan.
The passive heat sink is 100% reliable, as they have no mechanical components. Passive heat sinks are made of an aluminum finned radiator that dissipates heat through convection.
Heat Spreaders are another name for heat sinks and commonly used to describe the cover on computer memory that helps dissipate the heat produced by the memory.