What is laptop motherboard
A motherboard is that main printed circuit board in a computer. The mother board is a computer’s central communication backbone connectivity point , through which all components and external peripherals connect. It holds many of the crucial components, the central processing unit (CPU) memory and connectors for input and output devices. The base of a motherboard consists of a very firm sheet of non-conductive material, typically some sort of rigid plastic. Thin layers of copper or aluminum foil, referred to as traces, are printed onto this sheet. These traces are very narrow and from the circuit between the various components. In addition to circuits, a motherboard contain a number of socket and slots to connect the other components.
Laptop Motherboard Functional Block Diagram & Its Function
CPU( Central processing unit):- Also known as the microprocessor or the processor,This CPU is the computer’s brain. It is responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.
The processors chip is identified by the processor type and the manufacturer. This information is usually inscribed on the chip itself.
If the processor chip is not on the motherboard, you can identify the processors socket as socket 1 to Socket 8, LGA 775 among others. This can help you identify the processor that fits in socket3.
BIOS Stands for Basic input/ output system:- BIOS is “read only” memory, which consists of low level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the team BIOS by another make–device drives, or just drivers. BIOS is essentially the link between the computer hardware and software in a system.
All motherboards include a small block of Read Only Memory (ROM) which is separate from the main system memory used for loading and running software. On PCs, the BIOS contain all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communication, and a number of miscellaneous functions.
The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used during the start-up routine( boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware.The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because ROM retains information even when no power is being supplied to the computer.
Random Access Memory, or Ram:- usually refers to computer chip that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.
In other words, it is the working place of your computer, where active programs and data are located so that any time the processor requires them, it doesn’t have to fetch them from the hard disk.
Random access memory is volatile, meaning it loses its content once power is turned off. This is different from non-volatile memory,such as hard disk and flash memory, which do not require a power source to retain data.
When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in RAM is returned back to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the next pop-up, RAM begin to fill with program automatically loaded at start up, a process called booting. Later on , the user opens files and progress that are still loaded in the memory.
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Random Access Memory( CMOS RAM):- Mother board also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery ( known as a CMOS battery ) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on.
CMOS device require very little power to operate.
The CMOS RAM is used to store basic information about the PC’s configuration for instance:-
. Floppy disk and hard disk drive types
. Information about CPU
. RAM size
. Date and time
. Serial and parallel port information
. Plug and Play information
. Power Saving setting
Other Important data kept in CMOS memory is the time and date, which is updated by a Real Time Clock (RTC).
Cache memory:- it’s a small block of high-speed ( RAM ) that enhances PC performance by pre- loading information from the main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.
Most CPUs have an internal cache memory which is referred to as Level 1 or primary cache memory. This can be supplemented by external cache memory fitted on the motherboard. This is the level 2 or secondary cache.
In modern computer’s, levels 1 and 2 cache memory are built into the processor die. If a third cache is implemented outside the die, it is referred to as the level3
Expansion Bus:- An expanison bus is an input/output pathway from the CPU to peripherals devices and it is typically made up of a series of slot on the motherboard. Expansion boards plug into the bus. PCI is the most common expanison bus in a PC and other hardware platform. Buses carry signals such as data, memory addresses, power, and control signals from components to components. Other types of buses included ISA and EISA.
Expansion buses enhances the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computer by slotting adapter cards into expansion slots.
Chipset:- A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC’s key components. These key components include the CPU itself the main memory, the secondary cache, and devices situated on the buses.A chipset also control data flow and from hard disk and other device connected to the IDE channels.
A computer has got two main chipset.
. The North Bridge is in charge of controlling transfer between the processors and the RAM which is why it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, for Graphic and memory Controller Hub.
. The south Bridge handles communication between slower peripheral devices. It is also called the controller hub. The term “bridge” is generally used to designate a components which connects two buses.
Chipset manufacturer include SIS, VIA, ALI and OPTI .
CPU Clock:- The CPU Clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides the basic timing signals for the CPU. Using a quartz Crystal the CPU Clock breathe life into the microprocessor by feeding it a constant flow of pulses.
A “real-time clock,” also called the ” system clock,” keep track of the time of day and makes this data avilable to the software. A” file-sharing clock ” interrupts the CPU at regular intervals and allows the operating system to divide its time active users and/or application.
Switch & Jumpers:-
DIP ( DUAL In -LINE package) switch are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on or off just like a normal Switch. They are very small and so are usually flipped with a pointed object, such as the top of a screwdriver a bent paper clip, or a pen top. Take care when cleaning near DIP switches, as some solvents may destroy them. Dip switches are obsolete and you will not find them in modern system.
Jumped pins are small protruding pins on the motherboard. A jumper cap or bridge is used to connect or short a pair of jumper pins. When the bridges is connected to any two pins, VIA a shorting link,it completes the circuit and a certain configuration has been achieved.
Jumpers caps are metal bridges that close an electrical circuit. Typically, Jumper consists of a plastic plug that fits over a pair of protruding pins. Jumpers are sometimes used to configure expansion boards. By placing a jumper plug over a different set of pins, you can changes a board’ s parameters.
Acer laptop motherhood Functional Block Diagram
Acer Aspire 5720 Motherboard Front Views:-
Acer Aspire 5720 Motherboard back view
Motherboard brand lists:-
Compaq is a reputed company , the firm has been able to undertake the work of supplying and importing of the electronic components like Compaq Motherboard in an efficient way. The entire stock offered by us is sourced from leading manufacture of the market. Proper electronic properties,Wear and tear resistant easy to use.
HP Laptop Motherboard is made with well-known tested material and leading more. They are one of the well- distinguished companies in the market that are into offering Laptop Motherhood.
Acer have established ourselves as a renowned suppliers and importance of a vast range of Acer Aspire 4736 Laptop Motherhood. This is a series of personal computers by Acer Inc.Aimed at the casual household user or for small business use. The offered aspire series covers both desktop computers and laptops. Acer developed the series to range from essential to high quality material at our vendor end. Additionally we make use of premium packaging material to pack these motherboard safely.
The standard Dell Inspiron laptop features an AMD Phenom ‘ll processor , a 15.6 display and Microsoft Window 7 Premium. The screen is a 15.6 WlED high-definition display with a resolution of 1366multiply 768. That resolution gives you a 16.9 aspect ratio and native support for 720p. The screen is driven by the ATI mobility Radeon HC4250 graphics card steals from system RAM as it integrated
IBM Lenovo Motherboard:-
Lenovo acquired IBM’s personal computer business in 2005 and agreed to acquire its Intel based server business in 2014. Lenovo entered the smartphone market in 2012 and as of 2014 was the largest vendor of smartphone in mainland China. In 2014Lenovo acquired the mobile phone handset maker Mobility from Google
VAIO( Visual Audio Intelligent Organizer) Corporation which is headquarter in Azumino, Nagano in Japan, is a manufacturer of personal computers. VAIO was originally a brand of Sony Corporation introduction in 1996. Sony sold its PC business to the investment firm Japan Industrial Partners in February 2014 as part of a restricting effort to focus on mobile devices. Sony still holds the copyright trademarks for the VAIO brand and logo.
Toshiba Corporation, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It’s diversified products and services include information technology and communication equipment and system electronic components and materials, power system, industrial and social infrastructures system consumer electronic household appliances medical equipment office equipment as well as lighting and logistics.
Hardware of the Macintosh ( or Mac ) is produced solely by Apple Inc., who determines internal system, design and prices. Apple directly sub-contracts hardware production to external OEM companies maintain a high degree of control over the end product. Apple buys certain components wholesale from third-party manufactures. The current Mac product family uses Intel64 processor. All Mac models ship with a least 1GB RAM as standard. Current Mac computers use AMD Radeon or videos GeForce graphics cards and may include a dual-function DVD and CD burner, called the SuperDrive. Macs included two standards data transfer ports: USB and Thunderbolt.
Types of Motherboard
Advanced technology extended are the motherboards which were produced by the Intel in mid-90’s as an improvement from the previously working motherboards such as AT.
This type of Motherboard differ from their AT counterparts in the way that these motherboard are smaller than the At motherboard and thus proper place for the drive bays is also allowed.
The AT motherboard had a keyboards connectors and on the back plates extra slots were provided for various add-ons.
The low profile extension motherboard better known as LPX Motherboard, were created after the AT boards in the 90’s.
The major difference between these and previous boards is that input and output ports in these boards are present at the back of the system. This concept proved to be beneficial and was also adopted by the AT boards in their newer version. The uses of a risers card was also made for the placement of some more slots. But these riser cards also posed a problem that the air flow was not proper.
Also some low quality LPX boards didn’t even have real slot and simply connected to the PCI bus. All these unflavoured aspects led to the extinction of this motherboard system and was succeeded by the NLX.
Balanced Technology extended. BTX was developed to reduce or avoid some of the issue that came up while using latest technologies. Newer technologies often demand more power and they also release more heat when implemented on motherboard in accordance with the circa 1996 specification.The ATX standard and the BTX standard both were proposed by Intel. The further development of retail products was cancelled in September 2006 by Intel after the acceptance of Intel’s decision to focus again on low power CPUs after suffering issues such as scaling and thermal with the Pentium 4.
. Low -profile:-With the larger demand for ever-smaller system, a redesigned backplane that shaves inches off the height requirements is a benefits to system integrators and enterprises which use rack mounts or blade serves.
. Thermal design- The BTX design provide a straighter path of airflow with lesser difficulties which result in better overall cooling capacbilities. Instead of a dedicated cooling fan, a large 12cm case fan is mounted, that draws its air duct. Another features of BTX is the vertical mounting of the motherboard on the left- hand side. This kind of feature result in the graphics card heat sink or fan facing upwards, rather than in the direction of the adjacent expansion card.
.Structural design- The BTX standard specifies distinct locations for hardware mounting points and hence latency between key components. It also reduce the physical strain imposed on the motherboard by heat sinks, capacitors and other components which is dealing with electrical and thermal regulation.
Pico BTX Motherboard :- Pico BTX is a motherboard from factor that is meant to manufacture even smaller size BTX standard. This is smaller than many current ” micro” sized motherboards hence the name “Pico” has been used. Those motherboard share a common top half with the other sizes in the BTX line, but they support only one or two expansion slot, designed for half height or rise-card application.
In the initial stages of usage, the ATX and BTX mother board we’re so analogous that moving a motherboard to an ATX case was possible and vice-versa. At later stages , the BTX from factor had a large modification which was done by turning it into a mirror image of the ATX standard. Technically speaking motherboard are left side right when compared to ATX and not upside down as before. This means they are mounted on the opposites side of the case. Various computer cases for instance , the Cooler Master Series were released to support a wide range motherhood standard such as in order to simplify motherboard development without buying a new case; however all connector and slot standard are identical including PCI cards processor RAM hard drives etc.
Mini ITX Motherboard:-
Mini-ITX is a 17 multiply 17cm low power motherboard from factor. It was designed by VIA Technology in year 2001. These are largely used in small from factor ( SFF) computer system. Mini-ITX boards can also be cooled easily because of their low power consumption architecture. Such an architecture makes them widely useful for home theater PC system or system where fan noise can diminish the quality or worth of cinema experience. The four mounting holes in a Mini-ITX boards line up with four holes in ATX specification motherboards, and the locations of the back plate and expansion slot are the same. Although, one of the holes used was optional in earlier version of the ATX. Hence, Mini-ITX boards can be used in places which are designed for ATX micro-ATX and other ATX variants if required.
The Mini-ITX form factor has location for one expanison slot, pertaining to a standard 33MHz 5V 32-bit PCI slot. However often case design use riser cards and some even have two-slot riser cards, even when the boards. A few boards based around non-86 processor have a 3.33V PCI slot, and the Mini-ITX 2.0 boards have a PCI-express 16slot. Such boards are not used with the standard PCI riser cards supplied with cases.
Dismantle the Motherboard
How to Dismantling a Motherboard safely
1. Begin by shutting down your computer and removing all cables from the case.
2. Make sure you are in a static-free environment, wit rubber-shoes on. It is good practice to have an anti-static wrist-wrap attached and clipped on to something metal. It is also frequently suggested to touch things metal, other than your computer while working with sensitive computer parts.
3. Remove all screws holding the outer shell of your desktop or towel and slide off the metal casing.
4. Lay your tower down on its right side, so that the open left panel is facing the ceiling.
5. Take a mental picture, or draw out a simple diagram displaying all of your drives, cables,and expansion cards. note to what cables and in what order each device is connected to.
6. Remove any cables plugging into the large square/rectangular motherboard at opposite side of the case.
7. Unscrew all screw holding your expansion cards( video, cards, network card, sound, card etc.) to the case.
8. Gently remove the expansion cards by grasping the metal support cover and all very edges of the circuit boards. Place them either inside an anti-static bag or on a smooth, static-free surface out of the way.
9. Tuck all of the cables remaining unhooked behind the metal bracket of your hard drives, or in an empty slot beneath your CD-ROM drives, as to get them out of the way.
10. Locate and remove all screw securing the motherboard tray behind it. Make sure to save all washers and screws you find and set them aside in an order you will be able to understand when you replace them.
11. Grasp the main boards at the two shorter sides and lift it up by tilting the drive side up first, release the I/O cluster from the case, then lift straight out.
12. Place the motherboard on a large anti-static bag, paper-bag, cardboard box, or table carefully. make sure the area you are placing it is more than stable and open for your usage.
Bus definition, Types of Bus and Architecture BUS in Motherboard
What is BUS:- The microprocessor input/output devices and memory are connected to each other via a common communication path called as a Bus.
A bus is basically a group of conducting wires. The system bus is a pathway composed of cables and connectors used to carry data between a computer microprocessor and the main memory. The bus provides a communication path for the data and control signals moving the functions of three main buses; namely, the data, address and control buses, each of the three buses has its separate characteristics and responsibiliites.
The system bus connected the CPU with the main memory and, in some system, with the level 2(L2) cache. Other buses, such as the IO buses, branch off from the system bus to provide a communication channel between the CPU and the other peripherals.
The system bus combines the functions of the three main buses, which are as follows;-
. The control bus carries the control, timing and coordination signal to manage the various function across the system.
. The address bus is used to specify memory location for the data being transferred.
. the data bus, which is bidirectional path carries the actual data between the processor the memory and the peripherals.
Laptop Functional Block Diagram